Surfactant is enriched with a relatively unique phospholipid, termed dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, and four surfactant-associated proteins, SP-A, SP-B, SP-C, and SP-D. RSC Adv. By reducing alveolar surface tension, pulmonary surfactant stabilizes the alveoli and prevents alveolar collapse. Hough KP, Wilson LS, Trevor JL, Strenkowski JG, Maina N, Kim YI, Spell ML, Wang Y, Chanda D, Dager JR, Sharma NS, Curtiss M, Antony VB, Dransfield MT, Chaplin DD, Steele C, Barnes S, Duncan SR, Prasain JK, Thannickal VJ, Deshane JS. Surfactant creates a continuously reforming surface layer over the alveoli which reduces surface tension, prevents atelectasis and maintains alveolar stability. Environ Health Perspect. J Appl Physiol Respir Environ Exerc Physiol. It is often called a collapsed lung, although that term may also refer to pneumothorax. Surfactant - Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine - Atelectasis - Pulmonary alveolus - Infant respiratory distress syndrome - Surfactant protein C - Lung - Lung compliance - Surfactant protein B - Lamellar bodies - Lucinactant - Surfactant protein A - Poractant alfa - Pulmonary surfactant (medication) - Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis - Colfosceril palmitate - Surfactant protein D - … Atelectasis can have many causes. Accepted for publication May 8, 1964. The primary deficiency of surfactant in the premature newborn is respon - sible for hyaline membrane disease. Key Terms. By continuing to use our website, you are agreeing to, A Report by the American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Moderate Procedural Sedation and Analgesia, the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons, American College of Radiology, American Dental Association, American Society of Dentist Anesthesiologists, and Society of Interventional Radiology, https://doi.org/10.1097/00000542-196409000-00017, Intubation and Ventilation amid the COVID-19 Outbreak, Calculating Ideal Body Weight: Keep It Simple, Practice Guidelines for Moderate Procedural Sedation and Analgesia 2018, Exogenous Surfactant Preserves Lung Function and Reduces Alveolar Evans Blue Dye Influx in a Rat Model of Ventilation-induced Lung Injury, Surfactants Reduce Platelet–Bubble and Platelet–Platelet Binding Induced by In Vitro   Air Embolism, Effects of Exogenous Surfactant on Acute Lung Injury Induced by Intratracheal Instillation of Infant Formula or Human Breast Milk in Rabbits, Lung Atelectasis Promotes Immune and Barrier Dysfunction as Revealed by Transcriptome Sequencing in Female Sheep, Accelerated Arteriolar Gas Embolism Reabsorption by an Exogenous Surfactant, © Copyright 2021 American Society of Anesthesiologists. Fifteen surfactant-depleted animals were randomized and ventilated for 4 h using high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFO) at 15 Hz with an inspired O2 fraction = 1.0 and arterial PO2 (PaO2) > 400 Torr (a pattern known to reverse atelectasis) or conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) with PaO2 = 80-100 Torr (a pattern with some atelectasis despite positive end-expiratory … Scordo JM, Olmo-Fontánez AM, Kelley HV, Sidiki S, Arcos J, Akhter A, Wewers MD, Torrelles JB. Types of nonobstructive atelectasis include: Compression: Due to increased pressure on the lungs. The catabolism of surfactant after it is secreted into the alveolar lumen is complicated and involves different turnover times for the phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylglycerol, and the proteins. Pulmonary edema Topic: Pulmonary Rationale: Surfactant is responsible for preventing the alveoli from completely collapsing on exhalation. Marshall R, Gunning AJ. III. This surface lines the alveolar epithelium thereby reducing surface tension preventing lungs from collapse. 2015;5(35):27431-27438. doi: 10.1039/C4RA16731G. Epub 2015 Mar 17. The functions of the remaining 25% unsaturated phosphatidylcholines, 5-10% phosphatidylglycerol, 5% cholesterol, and 8-10% protein are unknown. NIH The functions of the remaining 25% unsaturated … This work was supported in part by the Heart Association of Southeastern Pennsylvania and the American Tobacco Research Committee. Lack of surfactant coating on the alveolar surface from pus, fluid or cell, debris can cause increased surface tension and subsequent alveolar collapse. HHS By adsorbing to the air-water interface of alveoli, with hydrophilic head groups in the water and the hydrophobic tails facing towards the air, the main lipid component of surfactant, … , Bodnar NO, Wu X, Rapoport TA that during mechanical ventilation, surfactant … pulmonary surfactant the. 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