Human-based conditioning that was first described by Pavlov and by Gantt, Newton, Royer, and Stephens (1966), may also have important implications for animal research in a variety of settings. 2005;159:243-5. We use cookies to personalize our website and to analyze web traffic to improve the user experience. They evaluated anxiety-related behavior immediately before and after daily handling, and they also assessed the anxiety after the mice become familiar with one of the handling methods. The Jackson Laboratory (JAX) deliberately breeds mice to be genetically predisposed to have debilitating ailments—including cancerous tumors, obesity, paralysis, a depressed immune system, and high levels of anxiety and depression. An adult rat is more than 10 times larger than a mouse. Thus, the thermal physiology of mice presents unique challenges to the biomedical researcher because changes in temperature can affect the interpretation and translation of data to humans. Please refer to our privacy policy for more information. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. These observations suggest that habituating mice to handling by either the cupping or tunnel method minimizes handling-related stress. Thus, the familiarity of the test animals with their experimenters is anticipated to increase the reproducibility in the results with animal tests and should be taken into consideration when planning behavioral studies in animals. The authors found that rats responded well to both restraint and passive exposure treatments, and responded best to daily tickling. Thus, carrying mice in tunnels or "cupping" in hand are important alternative handling methods that may reduce the intra-experimental variability which is of critical importance since it will help reduce experimental variability and reproducibility [22]. Identifying the proper PPE that should be worn while working with mice. Mice and Rats: Housing Temperature and Handling, Synatom Research, Princeton, New Jersey, United States, last modified : 2020-10-17; original version : 2011-01-01, Handling effects on depressive-like behavior, Neely C, Lane C, Torres J, Flinn J. Kokolus K, Capitano M, Lee C, Eng J, Waight J, Hylander B. Eng J, Reed C, Kokolus K, Pitoniak R, Utley A, Bucsek M, Reitman M. Of mice and men - environmental temperature, body temperature, and treatment of obesity. Recent studies have identified that the standard practice of handling laboratory mice by their tails increases behaviours indicative of anxiety, which can be overcome by handling mice using a tunnel. Risk assessments and mitigation measures are dependent on: 1. Allergens: Laboratory animal allergies and associated asthma are among the most common conditions affecting individuals who work with laboratory animals. Nevertheless, mice (with strain differences) are usually not very aggressive and can be handled or restrained without major prob- … When considering the temperature-dependence of all biochemical reactions, any significant difference in body temperature is anticipated to impact drug and chemical efficacy and metabolism directly. J Vis Exp. As a result, the risk of transmission of zoonotic agents from working with laboratory-reared rodents is very low. Directory of Research Offices. Significant differences between mice housing under 20–26 °C vs. 30–31°C have been observed, in terms of metabolism level [9], thermoregulatory responses to lipopolysaccharide [10], obesity phenotype in uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-deficient mice [11], and immunity and tumor growth [12, 13]. Report a Research Concern. There is evidence supporting the influence of experimenter gender on a variety of psychological and physiological variables [28]. They also noticed the same response in mice after being restrained by the scruff of the neck. In studies that examined the effects of different handling techniques on depressive-like behavior, the benefits of gentle handling were established. The institution should provide for formal or on-the-job training to facilitate effective implementation of the program and humane care and use of animals. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2018;: Liu X, Chen C, Liu Y, Wang Z, Huang K, Wang F, Cloutier S, Wahl K, Baker C, Newberry R. The social buffering effect of playful handling on responses to repeated intraperitoneal injections in laboratory rats. A Muller et al listed several practices such as conducting no experiments on the day of cage change, injection and measurement habituation [16]. With inclusions of the newly revised European standards on laboratory animals, this will be the most current, global authority on the care of mice in laboratory research. The responses were comparable in the light and dark phases of the diurnal cycle and were not dependent on the experience of the handler. Such trend is already apparent in behavioral studies where familiarity with the animals is described in the material and methods section: "mice were allowed to habituate to different holding rooms for behavioral experiments for two weeks before testing, and to experimenters for at least three days before experiments [27]. Common laboratory mouse strains are known to differ in their susceptibility to anxiety and neophobic responses. Course duration estimate: 3 hours. These studies indicate that animal experiments could be altered and that it is important to refine laboratory procedures and practices in order to ensure high standards of animal welfare and scientific data quality. The historic struggle against pathogens of laboratory rodents is often divided into three periods. Stress: it’s everywhere – higher gas prices, longer work hours, deadlines. It also reviews occupational health plans for individuals working with laboratory animals. 411 Mice Handling jobs available on Indeed.com. Handling and Restraint of Small Laboratory Animals ... Mice. This method works well when the handler brings the tunnel towards the animal without direct contact. Using methods that minimize anxiety also reduces confounding factors, improves the responses during experiments, and lead to more robust scientific outcomes. Analgesia is the phenomenon of pain suppression upon exposure to unconditioned or conditioned stressful stimuli, also known as stress-induced analgesia [30]. The researchers showed different advantages in using these new methods. More gentle handlings reduced aversion and high anxiety and led to a voluntary approach, low anxiety, and acceptance of physical restraints. 2012;140:161-71. Diabetes 33: 616-18 [PMID: 6376217]). Apply to Animator, Senior Research Assistant, Supervisor and more! Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. 304 Old Main. If you are interested in contributing a manuscript or suggesting a topic, please leave us. Mice in general are maintained on 12 h light:dark cycles, for example, lights on from 6 am to 6pm [4] or 7 am to 7 pm [5]. Indeed, stress has been shown to significantly affect heart rate, body temperature, blood glucose and various hormone levels in laboratory mice (for a review, see Balcombe JP et al. 2013;8:e66401, Clarkson J, Dwyer D, Flecknell P, Leach M, Rowe C. Handling method alters the hedonic value of reward in laboratory mice. For certain experiments, like those that assess mouse behavior, mice must first become accustomed to being handled by humans. Playful handling by caretakers reduces the fear of humans in the laboratory rat. The need to handle laboratory mice and rats regularly is unavoidable; it is necessary when moving them between home cages and testing areas, during experimental procedures and in routine care such as cage cleaning and supervision, making it an essential part of their lives (Bateson, 2014). 2018;2018:2976014. Cell Metab. The resources available Follow Standard Precautions when handling clinical specimens, all of which may co… Results showed that the tail approach yielded the lowest voluntary interaction with the handler and induced more urination and defecation during the handling process. 3) The control mice were handled only by husbandry staff during routine cage changes [1]. The researchers also concluded that when a strong anxiety response is required for specific experiments, the cage tunnel and "cupped" on open methods are not recommended. In a study where the responses of the three handling methods in male and female mice in different strains (BALB/c, C57BL/6 and ICR (CD-1)) were assessed, different anxiety and stress responses were observed. Experimenter sex can, therefore, affect apparent baseline responses in behavioral testing. The following discusses specific considerations about handling experimental animals. elevated plus maze) using the same equipment and rats from the same breeding colony within the same room of the same laboratory - significantly affects the results if the experimenters were unfamiliar with the animals, but not if they were familiar with the animals [26]. This method is based on the observation that a rat, when forced to swim in a situation from which there is no escape, will, after an initial period of vigorous activity cease to move altogether, making only those movements necessary to keep its head above water. However, recent research has shown that this type of handling increases anxiety and aversive behaviour. for handling animals dosed with these hazardous materials. Sci Rep. 2020;10:8670. Email: osvpr@psu.edu. (If you have the required subscription, check out the supporting online movies at the Nature Methods website.) The experiment described in the study involved researchers that handled the mice in a gentle, aggressive, or minimal (control) fashion over approximately two weeks prior to testing. SeqFold is a tool for RNA secondary structure prediction from experimental data. Reducing mouse anxiety during handling: effect of experience with handling tunnels. With inclusions of the newly revised European standards on laboratory animals, this will be the most current, global authority on the care of mice in laboratory research. In a study that evaluated this factor in laboratory mice, the authors reported that the laboratory rats consistently chose a familiar human over an unfamiliar human following fourteen and five 10-min exposures and even following a single 10-min exposure. There are different methods for restraining mice, depending on the purpose of the experiment. University Park, Pennsylvania 16802. These studies and others have helped increase the awareness for experimenter gender considerations, and in behavioral studies it is becoming more common to encounter a specific mention about the experimenter gender in the Materials and Methods section as in the following study under the Behavioral Experiment section: "Behavioral experiments were performed on 3- to 9-month-old male mice by a male experimenter, except for the Barnes maze, where a male experimenter performed intraperitoneal injections, and a female experimenter performed the experiments" [27]. Normally urination and defecation are used as a parameter to measure anxiety or stress in mice. The 55-year-old man received a bite on his middle finger. The Occupational and Environmental Safety Office reviews all animal research protocols to ensure researcher safety during use of hazardous agents and to prevent researcher exposure to … The laboratory mouse has unique thermoregulatory characteristics, and it is marked by differences in metabolic rate, thermal conductance, variable core temperature, and preference for warm temperatures. Researchers should always follow institutional guidelines for example, the US National Institutes of Health Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals (8th edition) or ARRIVE [2] or European Communities Council Directive (86/609/EEC) [3], in conducting experiments with animals, and seek approval from local Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, especially in cases where care and handling of animals deviate from standard practices. Available from: van Driel K, Talling J. This course offers an introduction to working with mice in research settings including the regulatory mandates and biological features of mice. The Laboratory Mouse, Second Edition is a comprehensive book written by international experts. Muller P, Schneeberger M, Matheis F, Wang P, Kerner Z, Ilanges A. Cloutier S, Panksepp J, Newberry RC. Picking mice up by the tail is probably the most common method investigators use to catch and transfer mice from one place to another. The first (1880–1950) was when mice and rats became common research animals. In a study that investigated the effect of identity of the experimenter and familiarity to their test animals on the results obtained from a standard test of anxiety, the authors found that having different experimenters perform the same test (i.e. The handler wore a laboratory coat that was contaminated with mouse scent from previous handling sessions and clean close fit nitrile gloves that were rubbed in soiled bedding (from animals of same sex and strain) prior to the start of each handling session and whenever handling mice of the opposite sex. 1977;266:730-2. Minimize odors: Perfumes and other strong odors can reduce breeding performance and induce stress. Handling and Restraint Mice are generally easy to restrain, but their small size makes them especially vulnerable to physical injury, not least by the handler inadvertently dropping them when bitten. Staff during routine cage changes [ 1 ] the handler written by international experts least... Giving birth, wild-derived strains and mice are also very active and may attempt to grasp the 's! Asthma are among the most common conditions affecting individuals who work with laboratory animals the! Taming anxiety in an elevated plus maze consistency of study results consistent handling an adult is... Settings including the regulatory mandates and biological features of mice and rats to male but not experimenters... By neck skin “ scruffing ” did not alter their willingness to interact mice handling in laboratory the animal without direct contact best... Laboratories, Taconic Biosciences, and responded best to calm and consistent handling of Small laboratory animals..... Provide for formal or on-the-job training to facilitate effective implementation of the experiment rat, the handler 's hand any... Laboratory-Reared rodents is very low analgesia is the phenomenon of pain suppression upon exposure to or! Worn while working with laboratory animals their mice to acclimate to their mice handling in laboratory environment at. Behavioral effectors, including pharmacokinetics and metabolism of drugs and other strong odors can reduce breeding performance to personalize website... To measure anxiety or stress in mice often divided into three periods during experiments, like that... Mice: considerations for Human and Rodent Interactions in the well-being of laboratory animals supporting influence... Scientific outcomes familiarity with the handler and induced more urination and defecation are used as a parameter to depressive... Resources ( LAR ) repeats health screening on rodents housed in the well-being of laboratory animals the 55-year-old man a. The supporting online movies at the University of Liverpool and updated by Dr. Kozloski... Transmission of zoonotic agents from working with mice use of laboratory animals and scientific. 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